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无铅简介
作者:嘉浩 时间:2013-02-02 阅读:1252次

 

无铅简介
Hazard to health after lead poisoning

 

 

 

铅中毒后的健康危害
Hazard to health after lead poisoning

 

 

 

1. 铅中毒特别对胎儿及儿童的神经发育有危害,严重损伤其学习能力和神经系统。
2. 儿童血液中含铅量超过40μg/dl,血红蛋白合成将发生困难并会导致贫血。
3. 铅对肾脏具有损伤。
4. 铅中毒后神经系统和生育系统紊乱。
  铅中毒属重金属中毒,在人体内它还有不可排泄、并且逐渐积累的问题。美国职业安全与健康管理署规定人体血液中的铅含量应控制在50μg/dl以下,打算生育子女的应控制在30μg/dl以下。
1. Lead poisoning is especially hazardous to the growth of nerves of unborn children and born children, and will severely damage their learning ability and nervous system;
2. The lead content in blood in children exceeds more than 40μg/dl, and there will be difficult in formation of haemoglobin, which may lead to anemia.
3. Lead will hurt kidneys.
4. After lead poisoning, it will lead to the disorder of the nervous system and the production system.
Lead poisoning means heavy metal poisoning, which will not be excreted out of human body, and will be gradually accumulated. It is specified by the American Vocational Safety and Health Control Department that lead content in human body should be controlled to 50μg/dl or even lower. Those who want to give birth to children should control the content to below 30μg/dl.

 

 

 

 

铅中毒的途径
Access to lead poisoning

 

 

 

1. 在日常工作中,人体可通过皮肤吸收、呼吸、进食等吸收铅或其化合物。
2. 最主要的是通过饮水系统危害人体健康
1
In daily work, human body absorbs lead or other compounds through absorbing, breathing and taking food by skin.
2
It does hazard to human body by the drinking water system.

   电子产品与工业垃圾一起直接掩埋到地下后,当下雨时,因为雨水一般是酸雨(酸雨中含有硫酸、硝酸和盐酸等成份),废电子产品中的铅会与酸雨中的酸性物质反应生成有毒性铅化合物。其反应方程式为:
Pb+O
2→PbO
PbO+H
2SO4→PbSO4+H2O
PbO+2HNO
3→Pb(NO3)2+H2O
PbO+2HCI→PbCI
2+ H2O
After electronic products and industrial trash are directly embedded underground, when it rains, as rainwater is generally acidic water (containing elements of sulfate, nitrate and hydrochloride), and lead in the used electronic products will perform chemical reaction with acid substances in acid rain to generate toxic lead compounds. Its reaction formulas are:
Pb+O
2→PbO
PbO+H
2SO4→PbSO4+H2O
PbO+2HNO
3→Pb(NO3)2+H2O
PbO+2HCI→PbCI
2+ H2O

   而生成的有毒性铅化合物会溶入酸雨中,如Pb(NO3)2在水中的溶解度565 g/L20),而雨水是地下水的来源,地下水又是我们饮用水的主要来源,最终铅进入供水系统而引起中毒。
However, toxic lead compounds become soluble in acid water. If the solubility of Pb(NO3)2 in water is 565 g/L (20
), and rain water is the source of underground water, which is also the major source of our drinking water, finally lead accesses to the water supply system to lead to poisoning.

 

 

 

 

欧盟RoHS指令
EU's RoHS Directive

 

 

  200671日起,所有废旧电子电气设备指令中所规范的电子电气产品进入欧洲市场时 ,不能够含有RoHS里所提及的六种有害物质(其中就包括铅和铅化合物), 如下表所示。其主要目标是减少电子电气设备的废弃物并建立回收及再利用系统,从而降低这些物质在废弃、掩埋及焚烧时对人体及环境所可能造成的危害及冲击。
Since July 1, 2006, those electronic and electric products set forth under the used electronic and electric equipment directives enter the European market, there may not be 6 harmful substances as mentioned in RoHS (including lead and lead compounds) as shown in the table below.
 
The principal objective is to reduce rejects in electronic and electric substances and to establish recycle and reuse systems so as to reduce the possible hazard and compact of such substances to human body and environment in the time of reject, burial and burns.There are 6 kinds of harmful substances in the RoHS Directive.

 

RoHS指令中六种有害物质
6 kinds of harmful substances in the RoHS Directive


Requirements

镉和镉化合物
Cadmium and cadmium compounds

≤0.01

铅和铅化合物
Lead and lead compounds

≤0.1

汞和汞化合物
Mercury and mercury compounds

≤0.1

六价铬化合物
Hexavalent chromium

≤0.1

聚溴联苯
Polybrominated biphenyls

≤0.1

溴联苯醚 
Decabromodiphenyl Oxide
 

≤0.1

 

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